From the Preface...
The first edition was published in 1995 and a revised reprint in 2008. It has been noted that with some changes it could be significantly improved. This second edition is the result of such changes.
The major improvement is the addition of the mass transfer supplement by Professor Sameer Dalvi. With this addition, the book can be used in all the schools whether the mass transfer is taught or not. Some of the materials have been rearranged. The general one-dimensional conduction equation with the variable area of cross section is introduced earlier in chapter 2 and its applications to several problems along with the derivation of the equations from first principles are illustrated through several examples. Similarly, in the chapter on Heat Exchangers, both the NTU and LMTD methods of analysis are first presented, followed by the solution of several problems using both methods in each. Some explanations have been made more compact and some rewritten. Several figures and materials considered unnecessary for an understanding of the subject have been deleted. Convective heat transfer coefficient has been replaced by the surface heat transfer coefficient where appropriate. A section on heat transfer with jet impingement is added. Properties of several materials have been updated. Updated references (appendices 2 through 7), which are used infrequently have been shifted to the accompanying CD.
To the faculty teaching heat transfer: I believe the book has sufficient material for two courses, an introductory course, and an advanced course. In the introductory course, it is recommended that the material in chapters 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 9 be presented. Time permitting chapter 10 on Multimode Heat Transfer, and those sections of interest to the faculty in chapters 3, 5, and 8 may be included in the first course. In the second course, the remaining topics and material in chapters 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 may be presented. The solutions to many example problems start with conceptual solutions (with a gray background). Those solutions are roadmaps for the solutions. I hope the instructors find the conceptual solutions important enough to impress on the students that they should also begin the solutions to assigned problems with similar conceptual solution.
To the students: I have endeavored to make the text student-centric. In the example problems, all concepts have been explained in detail. I strongly recommend that the students begin the solutions to assigned problems with a conceptual solution. Examples of such conceptual solutions to many example problems can be found with a gray background. With all the improvements I hope the instructors and students will find the book more useful.
Conduction I: Fourier’s law of conduction. One-dimensional conduction: Generalized One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction Equation with Area Change and Internal Energy Generation, Uniform Area of Cross Section, Variable Area of Cross Section. Conduction with boundaries exposed to convective heat transfer. Thermal circuit: Contact Resistance. Conduction Shape Factor. Heat transfer augmentation – Extended surfaces, Analysis of Extended Surfaces, Fin Effectiveness and Efficiency, Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient with Extended Surfaces, Some Features of Analysis of extended Surfaces, Corrected Length, Suitable Length of Fins, Justification of One-Dimensional Analysis. Transient conduction – lumped analysis. Multidimensional transient problems – Heisler charts, One-dimensional Transient Temperature Distribution, Application to Multidimensional Problems. Projects: Design of an Electric Heater, Design of an Experiment. Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Conduction II: Internal Energy Generation: Slab of Constant Cross-Sectional Area, Solid of Variable Cross-Sectional Area. Variable Thermal Conductivity. Multidimensional and Transient Temperature Distribution – Numerical Solution, Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction Problems – Numerical Solutions, Difference Equation for Two-Dimensional Steady-State Problems, Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA), Variable Thermal Conductivity. Transient conduction: Heisler Charts Revisited, Transient Conduction – Numerical Solution, One-Dimensional Transient Temperature Distribution – Stability Criterion. Approximate Analytical Method – the Integral Method. Projects: A liquid Level Measuring Device, Project 3.6.1 Continued, Project 3.6.1 Continued, Air conditioning load of a building. Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Convection I: Introduction. Classification: Laminar and Turbulent Flows, Heat Transfer in Laminar and Turbulent Flows, Empirical Correlations, Forced convection – External Flows, Forced Convection Correlations – External Flow Parallel to a Flat Plate, Forced Convection Correlations – External Flow Over Cylinders and Spheres, Forced convection correlations - Internal Flows. Natural Convection: Natural Convection Correlations. Mixed convection. Projects: Temperature Distribution in a Linoleum Sheet, Moving in a Water Bath, Estimation of Performance of a Space Heater under off-design conditions. Summary, Review Questions, Problems.
Convection II: Convection Correlations (continued): Forced Convection –Flow Over Tube Banks, Heat Transfer with Jet Impingement, Natural Convection – Rectangular Cavities, Natural Convection – Coaxial Cylinders and Concentric Spheres, Natural Convection from Thin Wires, Natural Convection from Closely Spaced Vertical Plates, Forced Convection with High Speed Flows over Flat Plates. Reynolds analogy. Approximate Analytical solutions – integral method: Boundary Layer Differential Equations. Projects: Design of a Space Heating System for a Building, Design of a solar collector. Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Heat Transfer With Change of Phase: Introduction. Boiling, Pool Boiling Correlations, Forced Convection Boiling. Condensation: Film Condensation – Vertical Plates, Film Condensation – Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres, Condensation Inside Horizontal Tubes. Projects: Design of an electric steam boiler. Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Radiation I: Introduction. Radiation Phenomena. Radiosity and view factor: Radiosity, View Factor. Radiative Heat Transfer among Gray, Diffuse, and Opaque Surfaces: Radiation Shields. Radiative Heat Transfer Coefficient. Radiation Intensity Projects: Energy Resource Conservation - a Preheating Furnace for Iron Ore Pellets. The project continued, Radiative Heat Transfer from a Cylindrical Fin. Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Radiation II: Radiative Properties of Surfaces, Emissivity, Absorptivity, Reflectivity, Transmissivity. View factors: View Factors for Infinite Strips. Radiative Heat Transfer among Gray, Diffuse, and Opaque Surfaces in an Enclosure: Thermal Network Method, Radiosity Method, Equivalence of the Thermal Network and Radiosity Methods, Radiation in an absorbing, emitting medium, Radiation Properties of Gases, Energy Balance with Gaseous Radiation, Energy Exchange Between an Enclosure and a Gas. Projects: Heat Transfer Rate from a Fin, Radiative Heat Transfer - Bank of Fins, Heat Transfer from a SteamPipe. Summary Review Questions, Problems.
Heat Exchangers: Introduction. Classification of Heat Exchangers. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. Analysis of Heat Exchangers: Number of Transfer Units (NTU) - Effectiveness (ε) Method, Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method. Regenerators Summary, Review Questions, Problems
Multimode Heat Transfer: Introduction. Solar Collectors. Performance of Flat Plate Collectors. Summary, Problems
Conduction-Differential Formulation: Differential Equation for Three-Dimensional Transient Conduction with Internal Energy Generation - cartesian coordinates. Steady, Two-Dimensional Temperature Distribution. Transient, One-Dimensional Temperature Distribution. Summary, Problems
Convection-Differential Formulation: Introduction. Mass Balance (Conservation of Mass). Momentum Balance. Energy Balance (thermal energy + kinetic energy) - First Law of Thermodynamics: Determination of the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient. Some Exact Solutions. Boundary layers: Velocity Boundary Layer Equations, Temperature Boundary Layer. Summary, Problems. Appendix - Table of Properties
Mass Transfer Supplement: Mass Transfer, Ficks Law of Diffusion: Diffusion, Species and Molar Average Velocity, Diffusion and Total Molar Flux. Steady State Diffusion in Fluids: Steady State Diffusion of A Through Non-diffusing B (NB = 0), Equimolar Counter Diffusion of A and B (NA = - NB). Estimation of Diffusion Coefficient, Prediction of gas-phase diffusion coefficient, Prediction of Liquid phase diffusion coefficient, Non-equimolar Counter Diffusion of A and B ( NB ≠ –NA ), Diffusion through variable mass transfer area, Diffusion through a conduit of the non-uniform cross-sectional area, Quasi-Steady State Diffusion. Convective Mass Transfer: Mass Transfer Coefficient, Film Theory of Mass Transfer, Types of Mass Transfer Coefficients. Dimensionless Groups in Mass Transfer. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer S36. Summary, Review Questions, Problems. Nomenclature. Appendix
Use of Consistent S.I Units
Emphasis on Physics
Conceptual Solutions providing a roadmap for the solutions of problems
Projects at the end of the chapter through 10 demonstrating modeling of the problems and the different possible solutions
Inclusion of Integral Techniques.
Undergraduate students of Mechanical Engineering stream.
Professors A. E. Bergles, Clark and Crossan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York: ...........“By any measure, it is a comprehensive, sumptuous book that covers very well classical heat transfer. It is pitched in a way that makes it very useful to the vast majority of our undergraduate students who will enter industrial employment. Specifically, the stress on physical insight, the inclusion of projects, and the relegation of messy differential formulations to the end of the book make it easier to reach the average student. The students will be advised to keep this book rather than selling it after taking the class because it will be useful in practical situations. …a book must be “lively”. You have succeeded in achieving this, through the good organization of the material, attractive layout, excellent figures, computer solutions, and historical vignettes…. Another contemporary necessity is relevant problems and a good solution manual. There are hundreds of well-posed problems that are solved in unusually neat fashion in the 600+ page solution manual. …It has many features that I like to see in a heat transfer book.”.........
Professor W.S. Janna, University of Memphis Tennessee. (Author of books on Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics ):................... “The organization of the book …allows the instructor the option of not covering the second of the two chapters, without sacrificing complete coverage that user of the text would want to have for later reference.” …”Chapter 10 gives an excellent coverage of mixed mode heat transfer problems. Many interesting examples are provided.” “… Interesting practical problems are also provided, including that deal with refrigerators, water heaters, furnaces etc…Many problems are application based, and several are identified as Design problems.” “Project type problems are provided in Chapters 2 through 8. These are very well done, and they show how to model physical situations that require the application material found in the chapter.” “…What sets Engineering Heat Transfer apart is the organization, … the writing style, design problems, and especially the project problems…The author has succeeded in meeting his goals, and has written a very good textbook, one that the reviewer could use with relative ease.” .............................
Professor Ashok Sanghani, Syracuse University New York: ............ "This is an easy-to-read book on introduction to heat (and mass) transfer that will prove very valuable to engineering students as well as practicing engineers. The topics in heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation are each divided in two chapters with a chapter covering simpler material followed by the second covering the more advanced material. This division makes it more readable and gives flexibility to the instructor in choosing the material that is appropriate for the curriculum at his/her institution. The book comes with a very large number of example/exercise problems for each topic. For example, there are 200 problems for just conduction alone! These problems appear to be carefully chosen to emphasize how to make simplifying assumptions to solve a large number of problems of every day interest with the principles covered in the book........
D. Martin, Senior Lecturer, University of Dundee, Scotland: “…I am impressed by the thoroughness of the presentation. We shall be recommending this text to the students.” ....
Jonathan Kaufman, Professional Engineer:.................. “I just obtained a copy of your book Engineering Heat Transfer, which I find to be excellent, especially as my field of expertise is electrical engineering and not heat transfer engineering.”........
Ray Jenoski, Graduate Student at WPI ........................... “I just wanted to let you know how much I’ve enjoyed reading your text “Engineering Heat Transfer”. I am a graduate student at WPI in Worcester, MA and my graduate focus is mainly solid mechanics. However, my project recently required transient heat transfer analysis, which is something I haven’t done in quite a while. I’ve taken out eight books from the library and yet I find myself primarily using your text due to its outstanding detailed examples and diagrams. Thank you for knowing how to write an “engineering” text!”
Prof.P. Chattopadhyay, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Om Dayal College of Engineering & Architecture, Howrah, WB, India.
.................This is a good text. The presentation is systematic. Theoretical discussion of each topic is precise and just to the extent required in B.Tech. Course. Numerical analysis is adequate to substantiate the heat transfer principles involved. This has been presented all thru the text not only in the thermal design of Heat Exchangers involving NTU & LMTD methods of analysis but also in the derivation of transient conduction, two-dimensional steady-state conduction, forced convection, natural convection, multimodal heat transfer just to name a few. All the heat transfer modes --- Conduction, Convection, & Radiation --- have been discussed with differential formulations. Quite reasonably all these receive backup support from Numerical Problems at appropriate places. The author has adopted "Assumptions" before going to solve the problems. That's good. But I suggest for Analysis & Reasoning before going to solve the problems. End-of-the Chapter Project Problems [CH 2--CH10] come as an extra bonanza. Good book. I will love to recommend this book to my students.......