The subject and the term "characterization" have become more common during the last few decades, although the main components of the process of characterization, such as mechanical testing, chemical analysis etc., have been in use since the middle of the 19th century. The field of materials characterization brings together all these methods and techniques, for the benefit of scientists, technicians, and experts concerned with quality assurance.
The background of the variety of methods of characterization comes from several fundamental fields, like atomic physics, physical chemistry, mechanics of materials and the science of materials itself as it has evolved over the last several decades. It is necessary that an engineer or technician, trying to understand these methods is given the necessary background information by way of a brief revision so that the application is clearly understood. This has become particularly necessary as there is an extremely large number of different methods in use today, and many of them are quite sophisticated, requiring a good knowledge of the relevant fundamentals.
An Introduction to Material Characterization has been designed with the above particular need in mind. The book summarizes the various methods of characterization of materials commonly used in engineering (metals and alloys, ceramics and polymers). Most books on materials talk about the materials in engineering, their properties, production etc. The techniques of evaluation and characterization are simply mentioned or at the most described briefly. There are very few specialized books on material characterization.
This book helps the reader to gain a good understanding of the principles behind the methods and devices of characterization of materials. These principles are taken from various topics in the basic physical sciences. An engineer dealing with materials needs some help in understanding the background. This also applies to designers, technicians and the selector of materials, who will all benefit from understanding these basic principles.
The books so far published on this topic, generally emphasize only one or two aspects and are not comprehensive in any sense. They mainly deal with their specific subjects within characterization, e.g., microscopy, mechanical testing, chemical analysis etc.
Optical Microscopy: Preparation of Specimens. Examination of Macrostructures. Metallurgical Microscopes. Examples of Some Common Microstructures in Alloys. Magnification, Resolution and Depth of Focus - Depth of Focus and Depth of Field. Image Resolution in a Microscope. Photography of Microstructures. Polarized Light in Microscopy of Materials. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Illumination. Hot Stage Microscopy. Colour Metallography. Quantitative Microscopy. Estimation of Grain Size - ASTM Grain Size Index. The Method of Intercepts. Area Measurement for Grain Size. Austenitic Grain Size. Austenitic Grain Size by Suitable Heat Treatment. Synder-Graff Method. Fracture Grain Size. Quantitative Phase Analysis by Microscopy - Automatic Phase Analysis Methods - The Principle of Phase Fractions. Other Applications of Quantitative. Metallography
X-ray Based Methods: Nature of X-rays. Absorption of X-rays by Matter. X-ray Fluorescence. X-ray Diffraction. X-ray Diffraction Methods. Powder Method (Debye-Scherrer Method). Basic Factors Influencing the Indexing of Lines in a Powder Pattern. Phase Mixtures and Phase Diagrams. Effect of Grain Size and Orientation on the Diffraction Pattern. Diffraction of Electrons and Neutrons. X-rays in Chemical Analysis and Defect Evaluation. Determination of Internal Stress by X-ray Diffraction. Stereographic Projection and the Laue Pattern. Stereographic Projection. Standard Projection. The Laue Pattern. Orientation of Habit Plane of a Precipitate or Second Phase. Reciprocal Lattice and Diffraction by Crystals. Intensity of Diffracted Beams and the Structure Factor - Scattering of Radiation by an Electron. Scattering of Radiation by an Atom. Scattering by a Unit Cell. Application to Different Cell Types. Other Factors Affecting the Intensity of Diffracted Beams. Measurement of the Intensity of Radiation. Preferred Orientation and Textures - Wire Texture Determination of Sheet Texture and Pole Figure, Exercises. Appendix: 1. Crystallography Appendix. 2. Some Basic Ideas About the Reciprocal Lattice
3. Electron Microscopy: Microscopy Using an Electron-beam. Electron Beam Sources. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) - Handling the Electron Beam in TEM. Interaction of Electrons with the Atoms of the Sample. Electron Optics. The Optical Parameters. Specimen Preparation. Applications of TEM. The Nature of the Image in TEM: Absorption and Diffraction. High Resolution Electron Microscopes. Aberration Corrected TEM. The Diffraction Pattern in TEM. Image Contrast and its Interpretation. High Voltage Electron Microscopy. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) -Modes of Imaging - Diffraction from Bulk Samples in SEM - Applications of SEM. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM). Some Modern Methods of Atomic Level Microscopy - Field Ion Microscope. Scanning Probe Microscopy. Appendix: A Note on Imaging Theory (Diffraction Contrast) in TEM
Microprobe-analysis, Surface Analysis and Other Techniques: Wave-length Dispersion (WDX) and Energy Dispersion (EDX). Electron Probe Microanalysis. Applications of Microanalysis Systems- Elemental Mapping. Electron Spectrometers. Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Some Modern Techniques of Surface Analysis- X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Raman Spectroscopy. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Monitoring Phase Changes. Electrical Resistivity Measurements. Thermal Analysis (DTA, TGA, DSC Methods). Thermogravimetric Analysis. Dilatometry. Electrochemical Measurements. A Note on Vacuum Systems - Ultra High Vacuum Systems. Measurement of Vacuum. Characterization of Powders - Measurement of Particle Size. Specific Surface and Other Technological Properties
Compositional Analysis of Materials Introduction: Classical Wet Analytical Chemistry. Gravimetric Methods. Volumetric Methods of Analysis. Oxidation-reduction Methods. Complexometric (EDTA) Titrations. Volumetric Methods for Analysis of Gas Mixtures. Electrochemical Methods of Analysis - Basic Principles. Concentration Cells: Potentiometric Analytical Methods. Other Methods Based on Electrochemical Phenomena. Methods Based on Molecular Absorption - Colorimetry. UV-visible Spectrophotometry. Infra Red Absorption Methods. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. X-ray Fluorescence Methods (XRF). Other Important Physical Methods - Chromatography. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Radioanalysis. Neutron Activation Analysis. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). Chemical Spot Testing Methods for Alloys. Exercises
Mechanical Properties and Mechanical Integrity Tension Test: Stress-strain Curve - The Important Parameters. True Stress and True Strain. Necking of the Specimen Instability in Tension Testing Machines for Tension - Compression Tests. Compression Test and Bend Test. Bend Test. Torsion Test. Hardness Tests - Brinell Hardness Test. Vickers Hardness (Diamond Pyramid Hardness). Rockwell Hardness Test. Microhardness Test. Nano-indentation Techniques. Miscellaneous Hardness Tests. Impact Tests. Fractures and Failures -Fracture Toughness. Fracture Toughness Evaluation: Stress Concentration Factor. Fracture Toughness Test Based on Stress Intensity Factor K1c. Crack Opening Displacement (Î”) and Crack Tip Opening Displacement (Î´). Meaning of G and Evaluation of Fracture Toughness by J Integral. Fatigue Tests - Fatigue Loading Cycles: The Effect of Mean Stress and Amplitude. Crack Propagation Under Cyclic Loading and Fatigue Loading. Low Cycle Fatigue. Creep Tests. Wear in Materials and its Evaluation. Non-destructive Testing Methods -Visual Inspection and Liquid-penetration Tests. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Eddy Current Inspection. Radiography (X-rays and Gamma Rays). Sonic, Ultrasonic and Acoustic Emission Methods. Acoustic Emission Analysis. Exercises.